"The diversity of life on earth is the outcome of evolution: an unsupervised, impersonal, unpredictable, and natural process of temporal descent with genetic modification that is affected by natural selection, chance, historical contingencies, and changing environments."
"The history of most fossil species include two features particularly inconsistent with gradualism:
1) Stasis - most species exhibit no directional change during their tenure on earth. They appear in the fossil record looking much the same as when they disappear; morphological change is usually limited and directionless;
2) Sudden appearance - in any local area, a species does not arise gradually by the steady transformation of its ancestors; it appears all at once and 'fully formed'." (1)
"...the reasons for rejecting Darwin's proposal were many, but first of all that many innovations cannot possibly come into existence through accumulation of many small steps, and even if they can, natural selection cannot accomplish it, because incipient and intermediate stages are not advantageous." (3)
(1) Gould, S.J. (1977)
"Evolution's Erratic Pace"
Natural History, vol. 86, May
(2) Gould, S. J. (1991)
Natural History, August, p. 16
(3) Lovtrup, S. (1987)
Darwinism: The Refutation of a Myth
Croom Helm Ltd., Beckingham, Kent, p. 275
(4) Gould, S. J. (1988)
"A Web of Tales"
Natural History, October, pp. 16-23
Art Battson, UC Santa Barbara
Professor Phillip E. Johnson, UC Berkeley
Michael J. Behe, Professor of Biochemistry