2. Quests of the Historical Jesus
6. Albert Schweitzer, The Quest of the Historical Jesus, Introduction by James M. Robinson (New York: Macmillan, 1968), translated by W. Montgomery from the first German edition, Von Reimarus zur Wrede, 1906; the English translation was first published in 1910.
7. Summarized in Schweitzer, pp. 13-26. Reimarus' work, Von dem Zwecke Jesu und seiner Jünger, was published anonymously after Reimarus' death by Gotthold Lessing in 1778. There is now an English translation of this historic work: The Goal of Jesus and His Disciples, introduced and translated by George W. Buchanan (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1970).
8. See esp. Schweitzer, 330-97. Cf. idem, The Mystery of the Kingdom of God: The Secret of Jesus' Messiahship and Passion (New York: Macmillan, 1914), translated by Walter Lowrie from the original German, Das Messianitäts und Leidensgeheimnis: Eine Skizze des Lebens Jesu, 1901. For a critical appraisal of Schweitzer's reconstruction see Robinson's Introduction in Schweitzer, Quest, xi-xxxiii. Robinson's critique is theologically oriented, and presented from the vantage point of the "New Quest of the Historical Jesus" grounded in existentialist hermeneutics (on which see below). Robinson does not (in 1968) take issue with Schweitzer's insistence on the eschatological nature of Jesus' ministry: "Schweitzer was correct on the issue of historical criticism, in affirming the eschatological nature of Jesus' ministry" (p. xx). Robinson is now more inclined to opt for a "paradigm shift," a non-apocalyptic Jesus derived from an alleged "preapocalyptic layer lying behind Q" (i.e. the hypothetical sayings source "Q" shared in common by the gospels of Matthew and Luke). See Robinson, "The Q Trajectory: Between John and Matthew via Jesus," in Birger A. Pearson (ed.), The Future of Early Christianity: Essays in Honor of Helmut Koester (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991) 173-94, quotation on p. 189. For a critique of this now popular attempt at finding "layers" in "Q" see Richard Horsley, "Logoi Propheton: Reflections on the Genre of Q," in Pearson, 195-209.
9. See the two volumes edited by James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (Garden City: Doubleday, 1983, 1985), esp. vol. 1: Apocalyptic Literature and Testaments. One of the most important of the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha for New Testament study is 1 Enoch, part of the OT canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.
10. On "apocalypse" as a literary genre and "apocalyptic" or "apocalypticism" as a worldview see e.g. the articles by Paul D. Hanson and John J. Collins on "Apocalypses and Apocalypticism" in The Anchor Bible Dictionary 1: 279-92, with extensive bibliography. The only "apocalypse" in the Hebrew Bible is Daniel (ca. 164 BCE). The Book of Revelation is the only "apocalypse" as such in the New Testament (cf. the "Little Apocalypse" in Mark 13 and parallels), but much of the NT reflects the apocalyptic worldview.
11. Johannes Weiss, Die Predigt Jesu vom Reiche Gottes (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1892, 3rd ed. by Ferdinand Hahn, 1964). An English translation is available: Jesus' Proclamation of the Kingdom of God, translated by Richard H. Hiers and David L. Holland (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971, repr. Chico: Scholars Press, 1985).
12. See chapter 16 of Schweitzer, Quest, "The Struggle Against Eschatology," pp. 242-69.
13. Schweitzer, Quest, p. 399. Albert Schweitzer nevertheless heard this stranger's call, "Follow me!" (p. 403). From 1913 on, practicing medicine in French Equatorial Africa, he spent the rest of his life (until 1965) testing the truth of the final words in his book: "to those who obey Him, whether they be wise or simple, He will reveal Himself in the toils, the conflicts, the sufferings which they shall pass through in His fellowship, and, as an ineffable mystery, they shall learn in their own experience Who He is" (p. 403). Schweitzer received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1952.
14. See chapter 19 of Schweitzer, Quest, 330-97.
15. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1934, translated by Louise P. Smith and Erminie H. Lantero from the original German, Jesus, 1926.
16. Bultmann, p. 8.
17. Bultmann, pp. 45, 51.
18. See esp. James M. Robinson, A New Quest of the Historical Jesus (Studies in Biblical Theology 25; London: SCM, 1959). The first book on the historical Jesus produced in the Bultmann school since Bultmann's own Jesus and the Word was Günther Bornkamm, Jesus von Nazareth (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1956), translated as Jesus of Nazareth (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1960).
19. Robinson, New Quest, esp. 122-23.
20. The classic book on the form criticism of the gospels is Rudolf Bultmann, History of the Synoptic Tradition (Oxford: Blackwell/New York: Harper & Row, 2nd ed. 1968), translated by John Marsh from the 2nd edition of Geschichte der synoptischen Tradition (Goettingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1958), first published in 1921.
21. Norman Perrin, Rediscovering the Teaching of Jesus (New York: Harper & Row, 1967) 39.
22. Perrin, 39-40. Perrin goes on to discuss other criteria, subsidiary to that of "dissimilarity": "coherence" and "multiple attestation" (ibid., pp. 43-47).
23. See e.g. N. T. Wright's article, "Quest for the Historical Jesus," part of a larger entry on "Jesus Christ," in The Anchor Bible Dictionary 3: 796-802.
24. It is not feasible to try to list here all of the relevant works, but I cannot refrain from citing the most ambitious and meticulous of the current works representing the "Third Quest": John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus (New York: Doubleday, 1991-). Two volumes have been published (1991, 1994), and a third is forthcoming.
For a good survey of recent work see Bruce Chilton and Craig Evans (eds.), Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research (New Testament Tools and Studies 19; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1994).
25. Gerd Theissen, Sociology of Early Palestinian Christianity (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1978), translated from the German Soziologie der Jesusbewegung (München: Kaiser Verlag, 1977).
26. Theissen, 14-15.
27. A chreia ("anecdotal maxim") is a literary or rhetorical form, consisting of a pregnant saying provided with a brief narrative context. The form occurs widely in Hellenistic and Jewish literature, including the New Testament gospels. Rudolph Bultmann referred to this form as an "apophthegm." See his History of the Synoptic Tradition, 11-69.
28. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers 6.46, my translation. Hicks' translation in the Loeb Classical Library edition translates ceirourgw'n (lit. "working by hand") more demurely as "behaving indecently."
29. F. Gerald Downing, Christ and the Cynics (Sheffield: JSOT, 1988). One might just as easily cull the Epicurean tradition in the same fashion for evidence that Jesus was really an Epicurean. That Jesus' teaching "closely resembles the real teaching of Epicurus" was the view of Wolfgang Kirchbach (Was lehrte Jesus? Zwei Urevangelien, Berlin, 1897) according to Schweitzer's account (Quest, 324). Anyone wanting to update Kirchbach's work will be glad to know about Brad Inwood and L. P. Gerson (eds.), The Epicurus Reader: Selected Writings and Testimonia (Indianapolis: Hacket Publishing, 1991).
30. Downing, Cynics and Christian Origins (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1992).
31. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991.
32. Crossan, p. 421 (italics his).
33. Crossan, 427-50.
34. See Wilhelm Schneemelcher (ed.), New Testament Apocrypha, revised ed. trans. by R. McL. Wilson (Louisville: John Knox Press, 1991), vol. 1: Gospels and Related Writings. For the items cited here see pp. 110-33; 96-99; 172-78; 216-27.
35. He makes his case for the "Cross Gospel" in another ponderous tome, The Cross that Spoke: The Origins of the Passion Narrative (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988). I know of no one who accepts Crossan's reconstruction.
36. See New Testament Apocrypha, 1:209-15; 300-11. In the case of the Dialogue of the Savior, the existence of an earlier dialogue source is plausible. See esp. the Introduction by Helmut Koester and Elaine Pagels in Stephen Emmel (ed.), Nag Hammadi Codex III,5: The Dialogue of the Savior (Nag Hammadi Studies 26; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1984) 1-17. They assign a late-first century date to the dialogue source and a date in the early second century to the tractate as a whole.
37. Page references in parentheses in what follows are to this book.