3. Methodology of the Jesus Seminar
5. "The liberation of the non-eschatological Jesus . . . from Schweitzer's eschatological Jesus."
6. The fundamental contrast between an oral culture, such as that of Jesus, and a print culture.
7. The "burden of proof" on those who argue for authenticity, rather than on those who argue for inauthenticity. (Pp. 4-5)
38. This expression is used in a highly critical review of the Jesus Seminar by Richard B. Hays, "The Corrected Jesus," in First Things 43 (May 1994) 43-48, esp. 46.
39. For example, silent burning of the American flag is (at least so far!) protected under the "free speech" amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
40. E. P. Sanders, Jesus and Judaism (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985). Sanders lists eight "almost indisputable facts" which he takes as his starting point (p. 11):
1. Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist.
2. Jesus was a Galilean who preached and healed.
3. Jesus called disciples and spoke of there being twelve.
4. Jesus confined his activity to Israel.
5. Jesus engaged in a controversy about the temple.
6. Jesus was crucified outside of Jerusalem by the Roman authorities.
7. After his death Jesus' followers continued as an identifiable movement.
8. At least some Jews persecuted at least parts of the new movement . . . .
See now also E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus (London: Penguin, 1993).
41. Cf. also the essay on "The Discovery of the Gospel of Thomas" (p. 474).
42. On this variety of early Christianity see Bentley Layton on "the School of St. Thomas" in his source book, The Gnostic Scriptures (Garden City: Doubleday, 1987) 359-409. Gregory J. Riley (Resurrection Reconsidered: Thomas and John in Controversy; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995) argues for an early date for the beginnings of the "Thomas Tradition" but not for the Gospel of Thomas as we know it.
43. Cf. note 22 (above).
44. See now esp. Craig A. Evans, Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies (Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums 25; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1995), esp. 83-154 on the Qumran material. See also n. 66, below.